Symbols In Geometry 0 With Slash Through It Mean? Trig Identities
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This list of commonly used mathematical symbols explains what each math symbol is, how it is used and provides a sample expression.
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Symbol  What it is  How it is read  How it is used  Sample expression  
+  Addition sign Logical OR symbol  … plus … … or …  Sum of a few values Logical disjunction  3 + 5 = 8 ¬(A + B) = ¬A * ¬B  
*  Multiplication sign Logical AND symbol  … times … … and …  Product of two values Logical conjunction  3 x 5 = 15 ¬(A * B) = ¬A + ¬B  
x  Multiplication sign  … times …  Product of two values  3 x 5 = 15  
·  Multiplication sign  … times …  Product of two values  3 · 5 = 15  
summation sign  The summation of …  Sum of many or infinitely many values  
Integral sign  The integral of …  integration  x2 dx = x3/3 + c  
Double integral sign  The double integral of …  integration  f(x,y) dx dy  
Triple integral sign  The triple integral of …  integration  f(x,y,z) dx dy dz  
Line integral sign  The line integral of …  integration  F dx  
Surface integral sign  The surface integral of …  integration  F(x,y,z) dx dy  
–  Subtraction sign Minus sign  … minus … Negative…  Difference of two values, negative number  3 – 5 = 2  
±  Plus/minus sign  … plus or minus …  Expression of range, error, or tolerance  500 kbps ± 10%  
dot product sign  … dot …  Scalar (dot) product of two vectors  A B = B A  
x  Cross product sign  … cross …  Vector (cross) product of two vectors  A x B = – (B x A)  
Product sign  The product of …  Product of three up to infinitely many values  
^  Carat  … to the power of …  exponent  2 ^ 5 = 32  
!  Exclamation  … factorial  Product of all positive integers up to a certain value  5! = 120  
Surd  … root of …  Algebraic expressions  z =
(x + y) 

Square root symbol  The square root of …  Algebraic expressions  
…  Continuation sign  … and so on up to … … and so on indefinitely  Extension of sequence  S = {1, 2, 3, …}  
/  Slash  … divided by … … over …  Division  3/4 = 0.75  
÷  Division sign  … divided by …  Division  3 ÷ 4 = 0.75  
Percent symbol  … percent …  Proportion  0.032 = 3.2  
Per mil symbol  … per mil …  Proportion  0.032 = 32  
:  Colon, ratio sign  … is to … … such that … … it is true that …  Division or ratio, symbol following logical quantifier or used in defining a set  2:4 = 20:40
x : x > 4 and x x : x x > 1 S = {x : x …it is true that … 
Symbol following logical quantifier or used in defining a set  x  x > 4 and x x  x x > 1
S = {x  x arithmetic mean 
3 :: 11 = 7 

lemniscate  … infinity … increases without limit  Infinite summations Infinite sequence Limit  x : x …list… …set of coordinates… …open interval  Denotes a quantity, list, set of coordinates, or an open interval  (x + y) + z (a1, a2, a3, a4) (x,y,z) (3,5)  
< >  Square brackets  … the quantity … … the closed interval …  Denotes a quantity or a closed interval  w + <(x + y) + z> <3,5>  
( >  Hybrid brackets  … the halfopen interval …  Denotes a halfopen interval  (3,5>  
< )  Hybrid brackets  … the halfopen interval …  Denotes a halfopen interval  <3,5)  
{ }  Curly brackets  … the quantity … … the SET …  Denotes a quantity or a SET  E = {2, 4, 6, 8, …}  
=  Equal sign  … equals …
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Indicates two values are the same  (5) = 5 2z2 + 4z – 6 = 0  
proportionality sign  … is proportional to …  Indicates two variables change in direct proportion  x y  
~  Similarity sign  … is similar to …  Indicates two objects are geometrically similar  ABC ~ DEF  
Approximate equal sign  … is approximately equal to …  Indicates two values are close to each other  x + y z  
Inequality sign  … is not equal to …  Indicates two values are different  x y  
is smaller than value on right  3 x y  
Inequality sign  … is less than or equal to … … is at most equal to …  Indicates value on left is smaller than or equal to value on right  x y  
>  Inequality sign  … is greater than …  Indicates value on left is larger than value on right  5 > 3 x > y  
≥  Inequality sign  … is greater than or equal to …  Indicates value on left is larger than or equal to value on right  x≥ y  
   absolute value sign  The absolute value of …  Distance of value from origin in number line, plane, or space   3  = 3  
increment sign, Triangle symbol  the change in … triangle …  Indicates a small change, Denotes vertices of triangle  m = y / x ABC = DEF  
Perpendicularity symbol  … is perpendicular to …  Geometry  L M  
//  Parallel symbol  … is parallel to …  Geometry  L // M  
Angle symbol  Angle …  Geometry  ABC = DEF  
Existential quantifier  For some … There exists a(n) …  Logical statements  x : x > 4 and x For every …  Logical statements  x : x x > 1  
¬  Logical negation symbol  not …  Logical statements  ¬(¬A) A  
logical implication symbol  … implies … If … then …  Logical statements  A B  
logical equivalence symbol  … is logically equivalent to … … if and only if ..  Logical statements  A B  
Three dots  … therefore … … it follows that …  Logical statements or mathematical proofs  x = y and y = z x = z  
Elementof symbol  … is an element of a set …  Sets  a A  
Notelementof symbol  … is not an element of a set …  Sets  b A  
Subset symbol  … is a subset of …  Sets  A B  
Proper subset symbol  … is a proper subset of …  Sets  A B  
Union symbol  … union …  Sets  A B = B A  
Intersection symbol  … intersect … … intersected with …  Sets  A B = B A  
Null symbol  The null set The empty set  Sets  = { }  
Hebrew aleph (uppercase)  Aleph …  Transfinite cardinal  1 + 0 = 1  
º  Degree symbol  … degree(s)  Angular measure Temperature  T = +20 ºC  
θ  Greek theta (lowercase)  … theta …  Angular variable  θ= 90º  
φ  Greek phi (lowercase)  … phi …  Angular variable 
= 45º 

λ  Greek lambda (lowercase)  … lambda …  Wavelength Ratio Eigenvalue Lebesgue measure  = 70 cm = 3:1  
µ  Greek mu (lowercase)  micro (106)  Prefix multiplier  C = 0.001 µF  
Greek pi (lowercase)  … pi …  General science  3.14159  
Greek omega (uppercase)  … omega …
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Volume of an object Ohms (resistance)  R2 = 330  
Greek omega (lowercase)  … omega …  Transfinite ordinal Angular velocity Period  = 36,000 rad/s = 1/60 s  
, N  Enhanced or bold N  The set of natural numbers  Number theory Set theory  = {0, 1, 2, 3, …}  
, Z  Enhanced or bold Z  The set of integers  Number theory Set theory  = {0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, …}  
, Q  Enhanced or bold Q  The set of rational numbers  Number theory Set theory  = {a/b  a and b are in }  
, R  Enhanced or bold R  The set of real numbers  Number theory Set theory  What is the cardinality of ? 
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