Geometry 2-6 Answers – Geometry: Common Core (15Th Edition) Chapter 2

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Taking the Burden out of Proofs

YesTheorem 8.3: If two angles are complementary to the same angle, then these two angles are congruent.

?A and ?B are complementary, and ?C and ?B are complementary.

Given: ?A and ?B are complementary, and ?C and ?B are complementary.

Prove: ?A ~= ?C.

StatementsReasons
1. ?A and ?B are complementary, and ?C and ?B are complementary. Given
2. m?A + m?B = 90 , m?C + m?B = 90 Definition of complementary
3. m?A = 90 – m?B, m?C = 90 – m?B Subtraction property of equality
4. m?A = m?C Substitution (step 3)
5. ?A ~= ?C Definition of ~=

E is between D and F.

Given: E is between D and F

Prove: DE = DF ? EF.

StatementsReasons
1. E is between D and F Given
2. D, E, and F are collinear points, and E is on DF Definition of between
3. DE + EF = DF Segment Addition Postulate
4. DE = DF ? EF Subtraction property of equality

2. If ?BD divides ?ABC into two angles, ?ABD and ?DBC, then m?ABC = m?ABC – m?DBC.

?BD divides ?ABC into two angles, ?ABD and ?DBC.

Given: ?BD divides ?ABC into two angles, ?ABD and ?DBC

Prove: m?ABD = m?ABC – m?DBC.

StatementsReasons
1. ?BD divides ?ABC into two angles, ?ABD and ?DBC Given
2. m?ABD + m?DBC = m?ABC Angle Addition Postulate
3. m?ABD = m?ABC – m?DBC Subtraction property of equality

3. The angle bisector of an angle is unique.

?ABC with two angle bisectors: ?BD and ?BE.

Given: ?ABC with two angle bisectors: ?BD and ?BE.

Prove: m?DBC = 0.

StatementsReasons
1. ?BD and ?BE bisect ?ABC Given
2. ?ABC ~= ?DBC and ?ABE ~= ?EBC Definition of angel bisector
3. m?ABD = m?DBC and m?ABE ~= m?EBC Definition of ~=
4. m?ABD + m?DBE + m?EBC = m?ABC Angle Addition Postulate
5. m?ABD + m?DBC = m?ABC and m?ABE + m?EBC = m?ABC Angle Addition Postulate
6. 2m?ABD = m?ABC and 2m?EBC = m?ABC Substitution (steps 3 and 5)
7. m?ABD = m?ABC/2 and m?EBC = m?ABC/2 Algebra
8. m?ABC/2 + m?DBE + m?ABC/2 = m?ABC Substitution (steps 4 and 7)
9. m?ABC + m?DBE = m?ABC Algebra
10. m?DBE = 0 Subtraction property of equality

4. The supplement of a right angle is a right angle.

?A and ?B are supplementary angles, and ?A is a right angle.

Given: ?A and ?B are supplementary angles, and ?A is a right angle.

Prove: ?B is a right angle.

StatementsReasons
1. ?A and ?B are supplementary angles, and ?A is a right angle Given
2. m?A + m?B = 180 Definition of supplementary angles
3. m?A = 90 Definition of right angle
4. 90 + m?B = 180 Substitution (steps 2 and 3)
5. m?B = 90 Algebra
6. ?B is a right angle Definition of right angle

Proving Relationships Between Lines

m?6 = 105 , m?8 = 75Theorem 10.3: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the alternate exterior angles are congruent.

l ? ? m cut by a transversal t.

Given: l ? ? m cut by a transversal t.

Prove: ?1 ~= ?3.

StatementsReasons
1. l ? ? m cut by a transversal t Given
2. ?1 and ?2 are vertical angles Definition of vertical angles
3. ?2 and ?3 are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
4. ?2 ~= ?3 Postulate 10.1
5. ?1 ~= ?2 Theorem 8.1
6. ?1 ~= ?3 Transitive property of 3.
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3. Theorem 10.5: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the exterior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary angles.

l ? ? m cut by a transversal t.

Given: l ? ? m cut by a transversal t.

Prove: ?1 and ?3 are supplementary.

StatementReasons
1. l ? ? m cut by a transversal t Given
2. ?1 and ?2 are supplementary angles, and m?1 + m?2 = 180 Definition of supplementary angles
3. ?2 and ?3 are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
4. ?2 ~= ?3 Postulate 10.1
5. m?2 ~= m?3 Definition of ~=
6. m?1 + m?3 = 180 Substitution (steps 2 and 5)
7. ?1 and ?3 are supplementary Definition of supplementary

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4. Theorem 10.9: If two lines are cut by a transversal so that the alternate exterior angles are congruent, then these lines are parallel.

Lines l and m are cut by a transversal t.

Given: Lines l and m are cut by a transversal t, with ?1 ~= ?3.

Prove: l ? ? m.

StatementReasons
1. Lines l and m are cut by a transversal t, with ?1 ~= ?3 Given
2. ?1 and ?2 are vertical angles Definition of vertical angles
3. ?1 ~= ?2 Theorem 8.1
4. ?2 ~= ?3 Transitive property of ~=.
5. ?2 and ?3 are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
6. l ? ? m Theorem 10.7

5. Theorem 10.11: If two lines are cut by a transversal so that the exterior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary, then these lines are parallel.

Lines l and m are cut by a t transversal t.

Given: Lines l and m are cut by a transversal t, ?1 and ?3 are supplementary angles.

Prove: l ? ? m.

StatementReasons
1. Lines l and m are cut by a transversal t, and ?1 are ?3 supplementary angles Given
2. ?2 and ?1 are supplementary angles Definition of supplementary angles
3. ?3 ~= ?2 Example 2
4. ?3 and ?2 are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
5. l ? ? m Theorem 10.7

Two”s Company. Three”s a Triangle

An isosceles obtuse triangleThe acute angles of a right triangle are complementary.

?ABC is a right triangle.

Given: ?ABC is a right triangle, and ?B is a right angle.

Prove: ?A and ?C are complementary angles.

StatementReasons
1. ?ABC is a right triangle, and ?B is a right angle Given
2. m?B = 90 Definition of right angle
3. m?A + m?B + m?C = 180 Theorem 11.1
4. m?A + 90 + m?C = 180 Substitution (steps 2 and 3)
5. m?A + m?C = 90 Algebra
6. ?A and ?C are complementary angles Definition of complementary angles

3. Theorem 11.3: The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles.

?ABC with exterior angle ?BCD.

StatementReasons
1. ?ABC with exterior angle ?BCD Given
2. ?DCA is a straight angle, and m?DCA = 180 Definition of straight angle
3. m?BCA + m?BCD = m?DCA Angle Addition Postulate
4. m?BCA + m?BCD = 180 Substitution (steps 2 and 3)
5. m?BAC + m?ABC + m?BCA = 180 Theorem 11.1
6. m?BAC + m?ABC + m?BCA = m?BCA + m?BCD Substitution (steps 4 and 5)
7.

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m?BAC + m?ABC = m?BCD Subtraction property of equality
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4. 12 units2

5. 30 units2

6. No, a triangle with these side lengths would violate the triangle inequality.

Congruent Triangles

1. Reflexive property: ?ABC ~= ?ABC.

Symmetric property: If ?ABC ~= ?DEF, then ?DEF ~= ?ABC.

Transitive property: If ?ABC ~= ?DEF and ?DEF ~= ?RST, then ?ABC ~= ?RST.

2. Proof: If AC ~= CD and ?ACB ~= ?DCB as shown in Figure 12.5, then ?ACB ~= ?DCB.

StatementReasons
1. AC ~= CD and ?ACB ~= ?DCB Given
2. BC ~= BC Reflexive property of ~=
3. ?ACB ~= ?DCB SAS Postulate

3. If CB ? AD and ?ACB ~= ?DCB, as shown in Figure 12.8, then ?ACB ~= ?DCB.

StatementReasons
1. CB ? AD and ?ACB ~= ?DCB Given
2. ?ABC and ?DBC are right angles Definition of ?
3. m?ABC = 90 and m?DBC = 90 Definition of right angles
4. m?ABC = m?DBC Substitution (step 3)
5. ?ABC ~= ?DBC Definition of ~=
6. BC ~= BC Reflexive property of ~=
7. ?ACB ~= ?DCB ASA Postulate

4. If CB ? AD and ?CAB ~= ?CDB, as shown in Figure 12.10, then ?ACB~= ?DCB.

StatementReasons
1. CB ? AD and ?CAB ~= ?CDB Given
2. ?ABC and ?DBC are right angles Definition of ?
3. m?ABC = 90 and m?DBC = 90 Definition of right angles
4. m?ABC = m?DBC Substitution (step 3)
5. ?ABC ~= ?DBC Definition of ~=
6. BC ~= BC Reflexive property of ~=
7. ?ACB ~= ?DCB AAS Theorem

5. If CB ? AD and AC ~= CD, as shown in Figure 12.12, then ?ACB ~= ?DCB.

StatementReasons
1. CB ? AD and AC ~= CD Given
2. ?ABC and ?DBC are right triangles Definition of right triangle
3. BC ~= BC Reflexive property of ~=
4. ?ACB ~= ?DCB HL Theorem for right triangles

6. If ?P ~= ?R and M is the midpoint of PR, as shown in Figure 12.17, then ?N ~= ?Q.

StatementReasons
1. ?P ~= ?R and M is the midpoint of PR Given
2. PM ~= MR Definition of midpoint
3. ?NMP and ?RMQ are vertical angles Definition of vertical angles
4. ?NMP ~= ?RMQ Theorem 8.1
5. ?PMN ~= RMQ ASA Postulate
6. ?N ~= ?Q CPOCTAC

Smiliar Triangles

x = 11x = 1240 and 140If ?A ~= ?D as shown in Figure 13.6, then BC/AB = CE/DE.

StatementReasons
1. ?A ~= ?D Given
2. ?BCA and ?DCE are vertical angles Definition of vertical angles
3. ?BCA ~= ?DCE Theorem 8.1
4. ?ACB ~ ?DCE AA Similarity Theorem
5. BC/AB = CE/DE CSSTAP

5. 150 feet.

Opening Doors with Similar Triangles

If a line is parallel to one side of a triangle and passes through the midpoint of a second side, then it will pass through the midpoint of the third side.

DE ? ? AC and D is the midpoint of AB.

Given: DE ? ? AC and D is the midpoint of AB.

Prove: E is the midpoint of BC.

StatementReasons
1. DE ? ? AC and D is the midpoint of AB. Given
2. DE ? ? AC and is cut by transversal ?AB Definition of transversal
3. ?BDE and ?BAC are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
4. ?BDE ~= ?BAC Postulate 10.1
5. ?B ~= ?B Reflexive property of ~=
6. ?ABC ~ ?DBE AA Similarity Theorem
7. DB/AB = BE/BC CSSTAP
8. DB = AB/2 Theorem 9.1
9. DB/AB = 1/2 Algebra
10. 1/2 = BE/BC Substitution (steps 7 and 9)
11. BC = 2BE Algebra
12. BE + EC = BC Segment Addition Postulate
13. BE + EC = 2BE Substitution (steps 11 and 12)
14. EC = BE Algebra
15. E is the midpoint of BC Definition of midpoint
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2. AC = 4?3 , AB = 8? , RS = 16, RT = 8?3

3. AC = 4?2 , BC = 4?2

Putting Quadrilaterals in the Forefront

AD = 63, BC = 27, RS = 45AX, CZ, and DY

Trapezoid ABCD with its XB CY four altitudes shown.

3. Theorem 15.5: In a kite, one pair of opposite angles is congruent.

Kite ABCD.

Given: Kite ABCD.

Prove: ?B ~= ?D.

StatementReasons
1. ABCD is a kite Given
2. AB ~= AD and BC ~= DC Definition of a kite
3. AC ~= AC Reflexive property of ~=
4. ?ABC ~= ?ADC SSS Postulate
5. ?B ~= ?D CPOCTAC

4. Theorem 15.6: The diagonals of a kite are perpendicular, and the diagonal opposite the congruent angles bisects the other diagonal.

Kite ABCD.

Given: Kite ABCD.

Prove: BD ? AC and BM ~= MD.

StatementReasons
1. ABCD is a kite Given
2. AB ~= AD and BC ~= DC Definition of a kite
3. AC ~= AC Reflexive property of ~=
4. ?ABC ~= ?ADC SSS Postulate
5. ?BAC ~= ?DAC CPOCTAC
6. AM ~= AM Reflexive property of ~=
7. ?ABM ~= ?ADM SAS Postulate
8. BM ~= MD CPOCTAC
9. ?BMA ~= ?DMA CPOCTAC
10. m?BMA = m?DMA Definition of ~=
11. ?MBD is a straight angle, and m?BMD = 180 Definition of straight angle
12. m?BMA + m?DMA = m?BMD Angle Addition Postulate
13. m?BMA + m?DMA = 180 Substitution (steps 9 and 10)
14. 2m?BMA = 180 Substitution (steps 9 and 12)
15. m?BMA = 90 Algebra
16. ?BMA is a right angle Definition of right angle
17. BD ? AC Definition of ?

5. Theorem 15.9: Opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent.

Parallelogram ABCD.

Given: Parallelogram ABCD.

Prove: ?ABC ~= ?ADC.

StatementReasons
1. Parallelogram ABCD has diagonal AC. Given
2. ?ABC ~= ?CDA Theorem 15.7
3. ?ABC ~= ?ADC CPOCTAC

6. 144 units2

7. 180 units2

8. Kite ABCD has area 48 units2.

Parallelogram ABCD has area 150 units2.

Rectangle ABCD has area 104 units2.

Rhombus ABCD has area 35/2 units2.

Anatomy of a Circle

Circumference: 20? feet, length of ?RST = 155/18? feet9? feet215? feet228

The Unit Circle and Trigonometry

3/?34 = 3?34/341/?3 = ?3/3tangent ratio = ?40/3, sine ratio = ?40/7tangent ratio = 5/?56 = 5?56/56, cosine ratio = ?56/9

Excerpted from The Complete Idiot”s Guide to Geometry 2004 by Denise Szecsei, Ph.D.. All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Used by arrangement with Alpha Books, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

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To order this book direct from the publisher, visit the Penguin USA website or call 1-800-253-6476. You can also purchase this book at Amazon.com and Barnes & Noble.

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