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Genetics – is the discipline of biology concerned with the study of heredity and variation. Gametes- a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism. Monohybrid Cross – individuals with one pair of contrasting traits for a given character are mated. Alleles – any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are responsible for hereditary variation. Dominant Alleles – are always expressed in the appearance of an organism. Recessive Alleles – the expression or appearance are sometimes hidden or masked. Phenotype- the appearance of a particular trait Genotype – the genetic composition of an organism Homozygous- having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics. Heterozygous – having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic. Law of Segregation of Alleles – when an organism contains a pair of units, the units separate, or segregate, during gamete formation so that each individual gamete produced receives only one unit of the pair. P generation – crossing true-breeding homozygous parents
F1 generation – the first offspring produced from a P generation cross.
Đang xem: Lab 8 mendelian genetics
F2 generation – the second offspring produced from a F1 generation cross.Dihybrid Cross – a mating between two organisms that are identically hybrid for twotraits. A hybrid organism is one that is heterozygous.Law of Independent Assortment – that alleles for different characters segregate intogametes independently of each other.Chi-square analysis – is a statistical method that can be used to evaluate how observedratios for a given cross compare with predicted ratios.Null hypothesis – the hypothesis in which there is no significant difference betweenspecified populations, any observed difference being due to sampling or experimentalerror.Somatic cells – any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.Diploid number – the number of chromosomes present in the body cells of a diploidorganism.Homologous chromosomes – a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome thatpair up with each other inside a cell during fertilization.Autosomes – any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.Sex chromosomes – a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size,and behavior. The human sex chromosomes, a typical pair of mammal allosomesdetermine the sex of an individual created in sexual reproduction.
Haploid number – the number of chromosomes in a single set represented as n. Inhumans n=23.
3. P-generation Genotype: Female: XB XB XA XA Male: Xb Y Xa Y Female: wild eye, wild body Male: white eye, tan body Phenotypic Category: Female: wild XA Xa XB Xb Genotypic Ratio/Frequnecy: 50% Male: wild XA Y XB Y 50%
P-generation Genotype: Female: Aa BB Male: AA Bb Female: Curly wings, wild antennae Male: Wild wings, aristopedia antennae mutation Phenotypic Category: Genotypic Ratio/Frequency:
Xb XB Xb XB Xb
Y XBY XBY
Xa XA Xa XA Xa
Y XA Y XA Y
Wild wings, wild antennae 25%Wild wings, antennae mutation 25%Curly wings, wild antennae 25%Curly wings, antennae mutation 25%
5. P-generation Genotype: Female: Xa Xa BB CC Male: XA Y bb Cc: Female: white eyes, wild wing, wild antennaeMale: wild eyes, vestigial wings, aristopedia antennaePhenotypic category: Female: wild eye, wild wing, wild antennae Genotypic Ratio/Frequency: 25%Male: white eyes, wild wing, wild antennae 25%Female: wild eyes, wild wing, aristopedia antennae 25%Male: white eyes, wild wing, aristopedia antennae 25%